DIAGNOSTICS FOR CONSERVATION
SILTEA offers to the experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage scientific support in the choice of materials and methods.
In particular SILTEA performs chemical and morphological analysis for the characterization of the materials, for the determination of technical features, for the identification of degradation factors of artworks, architectures and archaeological finds. A technical report collects all the data with the interpretation for the client.
Morphological analysis by means of portable optical fibres microscopes. It is possible to collect images at high magnification (from 50X to 500X) in white or UV light.
CROSS SECTION STRATIGRAPHY
Analysis on cross sections are performed to reconstruct the sequence of layers of paintings and plasters, to determine colors, thickness and features of layers, and to analyse shape and granulometry of inclusions. These data are oriented to determine the technical execution.(UNI 11176, 2006)
ESEM EDS ANALYSIS
The Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with electron microprobe allows analysing samples of very small size. Morphological and chemical data of the full sample or of its cross section are collected simultaneously.
ELEMENTARY MAPPING ESEM-EDS
The Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with electron microprobe allows analysing samples of very small size. Morphological and chemical data of the full sample or of its cross section are collected simultaneously
The FT-IR spectroscopy helps in the identification of the class of compounds in a sample as carbonates, silicates, sulphates or oxalates and organic compounds (oils, waxes, synthetic polymers).
PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS IN THIN SECTION
The thin sections are observed by an optical polarized microscope to classify natural stones, plasters and mortars, to verify the presence of altered layers and to determine firing temperatures of ceramics.
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD)
Identify and quantify of the minerals in a sample. This technique is useful for the study of plasters, mortars, ceramics, pigments, salts and stones.
DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS
The content of soluble salts is determined by ion chromatography. The species analysed in mortars and deteriorated plasters are either anionic (chlorides, sulfates, nitrates) or cationic.(UNI 11087, 2003).
IDENTIFICATION OF BIODETERIORATION AGENTS
The identification and classification of biological agents as plants, moss, lichens, algae and fungi are performed by macroscopic and microscopic observations of the surfaces. Evaluation of the levels of contamination and efficacy with bioluminometer.
DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORBPTION
Measure of the water absorption coefficient following the contact sponge method (developed by CNR-ICVBC, Florence) to evaluate the water repellent treatment efficacy.
(UNI 11432, 2011)
Qualitative measurements of water content in building materials (covering, plaster, masonry, wood) to evaluate the effects of the rising damp and its possible sources.
In situ examination of the stratigraphic sequence of painted plasters, from the outer altered layers to the masonry in order to evaluate further laboratory investigations.
The diagnostic analysis represents a key stage of the conservation process, being a moment for the knowledge of the artwork and its constituent material.
In this video are shown some cases of analysis commissioned by companies working in the restoration field. We show techniques and instrumentation useful for the identification of binders and pigments, for the description of stratigraphy, for the distinction between lime and hydraulic mortar and for the identification of the most compatible restoration material with the original artwork.